Kosovo is a parliamentary republic and a modern democratic state that is based on the principle of separation, control and balance of powers, as defined by the Constitution. The majority of Kosovo's population is comprised of ethnic Albanians, while the Constitution guarantees that other non-Albanian communities enjoy equal rights with the majority of the population, and play a key role, at times even decisive, on the matters of state leadership, provided through constitutional right to a double majority.
Kosovo’s main institutions are: The Assembly of the Republic of Kosovo, which is unicameral, consisting of 120 assembly members, and exercises legislative power. Within this division, twenty (20) out of one hundred and twenty (120) seats are guaranteed for the non-majority communities in Kosovo.
The country's President represents the unity of the people, and is a legitimate representative inside the country and abroad, and guarantees the democratic functioning of the institutions of the Republic of Kosovo. The Government is the other body responsible for implementation of state laws and policies, and is subject to parliamentary control, while the judicial power is unique, independent and exercised by the Courts. Kosovo's Constitution provides for participation of all non-majority communities in the Government, with at least three Ministers, five Deputy Ministers, and other posts, subject to respective agreements between political parties that make the coalitions to govern the country.
The civic concept, civic equality and human rights, multi-ethnic character, special protection of the rights of communities living in Kosovo/positive discrimination, or secularity and neutrality on religious issues, and non-prohibition of same gender marriages, are considered as some of the most advanced and progressive features of the highest legal act in Kosovo, namely its Constitution.
The official languages in the Republic of Kosovo are Albanian and Serbian, while the Turkish, Bosnian and Roma languages have official language status at the Municipal level. Due to the large international presence, the English language is relatively widely used. The strong ties to the European states, because of a large presence of Kosovo's Diaspora in European countries, and the very young age of the population, have given a strong boost to the use of other languages, in particular, the German language.
The Republic of Kosovo has its own institutions for protection of constitutional order, territorial integrity, order and public peace, which operate under the constitutional authority of the democratic institutions of the Republic of Kosovo. Kosovo Security Institutions are established based on the most advanced international standards and practices, and have been considered, by several credible organizations, among the best in the region.
Kosovo has 38 Municipalities, ten of which are comprised of the Serb-majority population and are led by the Serb community, and one of them by the Turkish minority living in Kosovo. Although a small country, it is estimated that there are over 30 political parties in Kosovo and more than 50 civic initiatives. Also, Kosovo allows dual citizenship.